Intestinal Microbes or Intestinal Microflora
Demystifying the latest research from scientists: The reason why we ran fast was because of TA
The reason why elite runners are called elites is that they run faster than the average mass runner. As for why they are faster than the average person, they explain more. They run more, have a good inheritance, are willing to endure hardships, have good heart and lungs, and have good strength. Wait.
Recently, the international top academic journal Nature magazine published a Harvard team's latest research results on intestinal microbes (that is, intestinal microflora) can improve the metabolism of lactic acid during exercise.
This thesis explains why elite runners are not tired from running fast from a completely new mechanism.
1. The gut flora of excellent marathon runners is different from ordinary people
This study compared the feces of elite runners and ordinary people who participated in the 2015 Boston Marathon. The purpose of extracting feces is to study the intestinal flora (the main method of studying intestinal flora is to extract feces).
It turned out that the most different microorganism in the intestinal flora of elite players and the general public is the intestinal bacteria named veillonella. This magical bacterium may be an important reason why elite players run faster than you.
Since the elite player and the general public have the biggest difference in intestinal flora, the veillonella bacteria.
The researchers inoculated Veillonella bacteria from the stool sample of a marathon athlete into the intestines of the mice. As a result, these mice's exercise ability increased significantly, and the time the mice ran on the specially designed treadmill was significantly extended!
Scientists finally got the answer after further analysis. The main function of Veillonella bacteria is to decompose lactic acid.
However, lactic acid is a product of anaerobic decomposition of sugar during intense exercise. Since lactic acid is an acidic substance, once it is produced in the body and is decomposed insufficiently, it will accumulate in the body in a short period of time, causing obvious muscle soreness and causing fatigue and Exercise capacity drops sharply.
Here we have to talk about lactic acid.
When we run slower, sugar and fat can be fully oxidized and decomposed into carbon dioxide and water, and provide energy.
When the running speed is getting faster and faster, the output power generated by the full oxidative decomposition of sugar is limited, and it cannot meet the high power needs of fast running.
At this time, in order to maintain a faster speed, sugar can be supplied without sufficient oxygen. Decomposition provides energy to output greater power.
At this time, the requirement for higher output power during fast running can be met, but in this process, an acidic substance that many runners are very familiar with-lactic acid.
Due to the acidic substances in lactic acid, if it is produced more and more and is not cleared in time, it will cause a great change in the internal environment of the body. On the one hand, it makes you feel very uncomfortable.
On the other hand, it will greatly inhibit your athletic performance and make you quickly fatigue, that is, you can't run.
Therefore, lactic acid is the core cause of fatigue when we run faster, and the state of exercise at this time is the so-called anaerobic exercise.
Anaerobic exercise is also not related to the presence or absence of oxygen. It means that the intensity of exercise is too great for sugar to be fully oxidized and broken down. Instead, it provides energy in the form of anaerobic fermentation to maintain a high level of exercise intensity.
When you can't keep your original intensity slowed down or stopped because of the accumulation of lactic acid, then lactic acid is no longer produced.
Part of the lactic acid accumulated in the body continues to be decomposed into pyruvate, which is further decomposed into carbon dioxide and water, and part of it enters the liver, and lactic acid can synthesize glycogen again. This process is called gluconeogenesis.
Veillonella bacteria in the intestine
Veillonella bacteria can change lactic acid into pyruvate, and the lactic acid produced in the body can pass through the epithelial barrier and enter the intestinal cavity, which means that the lactic acid accumulated in the body during exercise can be transported to the intestine, and the veillonella bacteria in the intestine can decompose lactic acid.
To confirm this, the researchers instilled pyruvate directly into the rectum of mice, and found that this was completely consistent with the results of inoculation of Veillonella bacteria in the intestine of mice to increase running ability.
This shows that veillonella bacteria can quickly and effectively decompose lactic acid, on the one hand, the energy generated by decomposing lactic acid can be used by muscles, veillonella bacteria is really a good helper for exercise.
The research published in the top "Nature-Medical" magazine shows its weight, because this result reveals another important mechanism for improving exercise capacity-that is, intestinal flora.
Gut flora of excellent athletes different from the
The gut flora of excellent athletes is different from the average person, because their intestines are rich in veillonella bacteria, which makes them have a stronger ability to metabolize lactic acid.
Ordinary people can only rely on the liver to metabolize lactic acid. In addition to the liver, athletes can also metabolize lactic acid in their intestines. That is to say, athletes have one more lactic acid metabolism channel than ordinary people.
First of all, under the same intensity, such as 500 pace, athletes produce less lactic acid than ordinary people. Even if they run fast and the athletes produce a lot of lactic acid, they can still rely on the gastrointestinal tract to decompose lactic acid. Lactic acid accumulation will occur.
This makes their lactic acid levels in the body still not high when the speed is very fast, and the average person's lactic acid has already "exploded the table" at this time.
Latest research confirms that athletes' intestines can metabolize lactic acid
2. "New Net Red" in the field of life science research-intestinal flora
In our body, there are trillions of microbes, and 95% of the microbes in our gastrointestinal tract constitute the intestinal microbial environment, which contains 100 trillion microbes, involving 1,000 strains and weighing 1.5 kg.
In thousands of years of evolution, these microorganisms and the human body have evolved in concert with each other to form a mutually beneficial biological community.
Many bacteria in the intestine are beneficial to the human body. They provide enzymes for digestion and absorption of many nutrients of the human body, promote the absorption of food calories, synthesize certain vitamins, and also play an important role in the body's immune function.
As early as 2013, researchers from the French Academy of Agricultural Sciences, the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, and the Shenzhen Huada Gene Research Institute and other units found obesity through the study of the intestinal flora of 169 obese and 123 non-obese Danes. There are significant differences in the types and numbers of intestinal flora between non-obese people.
This study provides new ideas for prevention and treatment of obesity, that is, intestinal flora as a new entry point.
Through further research, it is found that individuals with low microbial richness often carry more proinflammatory bacteria, while individuals with high microbial richness contain more anti-inflammatory bacteria.
Individuals with low microbial abundance have more body fat, and most of them show hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, high blood pressure, and are accompanied by other signs of inflammation.
Effects of Intestinal Flora
In addition, scientists have found that the intestinal flora affects people's consciousness, behavior and brain. Why do some people lose weight so hard, they can't control their appetite, they don't want to exercise, maybe because the intestinal flora passes the hormone Control, control your consciousness, behavior, can directly give instructions to the brain.
Why do some people lose weight so hard, they can't control their appetite and don't want to exercise? It may be because the intestinal flora controls your consciousness and behavior through the control of hormones, and can directly give instructions to the brain.
At present, there are many studies in this area. Many studies point to the intestinal flora's infinite power, which controls our behavior, thinking and physical health.
3. Importance of Diet for Intestinal Flora
At present, there is sufficient evidence that diet is the most important factor affecting the composition of intestinal flora. Different diet structures can form different flora structures.
Long-term consumption of high-fat, low-fiber foods can cause intestinal microflora imbalance, increase the amount of toxins that enter the bloodstream, and induce chronic inflammation, which can lead to chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and coronary heart disease.
There are many ways to adjust the structure of the flora: rich in dietary fiber complex carbohydrates (coarse grains, whole wheat), vegetables and fruits rich in various dietary fibers can make probiotics multiply:
Excessive intake of refined sugars such as rice noodle desserts, fat, meat, etc. will allow more harmful bacteria to multiply.
Therefore, we often say that the most basic nutrition knowledge in daily life is to consume more dietary fiber, eat more coarse grains, vegetables and fruits, but it actually contains a profound scientific truth.
A healthy diet can improve the intestinal flora, because food can directly affect the intestinal flora and play a role in regulating the intestinal flora, and the research mentioned at the beginning of this article also confirmed that exercise seems to be able to Acts directly on the intestinal flora, such as adding bacteria that are beneficial to lactic acid metabolism.
In fact, a number of recent studies have confirmed that exercise can also play a role in inhibiting "bad" flora, increasing "good" flora, and bacteria that promote lactic acid decomposition belong to "good" flora.
The latest research finds that there are more bacteria with superb lactate metabolism in the gut flora of elite athletes, which is another important mechanism for why they run fast and not tired.
This mechanism arises because exercise can directly affect the flora, or people who love exercise eat healthier themselves, or both, and this study does not give an answer.
All in all, aerobic exercise is not only to make our bones, joints, muscles, and heart healthier, but exercise can also act on the digestive system.
The scientific exercise is delicious, stepping on your legs and keeping your mouth shut, two-pronged approach is always the ultimate magic weapon for health.