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Androgen Hormone Function Diagnosis and Treatment

Function Diagnosis and Treatment of Androgen Hormone

Androgen mainly refers to a class of endocrine hormones synthesized by the gonads (testis). The cells that produce androgens in the testes are interstitial cells. In addition, the adrenal cortex can also synthesize a certain amount of androgens, and the ovaries can also synthesize a small amount of androgens.

 

Name  Male Hormones
 Treatment Department Urology, Andrology, Reproductive Medicine Center
 Common locations Testis, adrenal cortex
 Common causes  Inadequate androgen secretion
 Common symptoms  Obesity, abdominal fat accumulation
 Infectious None
 Way for spreading None


Table of Content

    1 Overview

    2 Physiological function

    3 Synthesis and decomposition

    4 Clinical disease-polycystic ovary syndrome

    ▪ Diagnosis

    ▪ Pathogenesis

    ▪ Treatment principles

 

Overview

Androgen, also known as male hormone, is a hormone that maintains normal sexual desire and reproductive function. Lack of male hormones can cause many health problems.

Androgen can regulate the distribution and composition percentage of human adipose tissue and inhibit the increase or increase of body fat.

Low androgen levels can cause obesity, abdominal fat accumulation, and other metabolic diseases are also likely to follow suit.


What is the Physiological function of Androgen?

Androgens can promote the growth of male organs, spermatogenesis and the development of male secondary sexual characteristics, and promote the appearance of male secondary sexual characteristics such as beards and pubic hair and maintain male sexual desire.

Simulation for Androgen

In addition, it also has a certain regulating effect on systemic metabolism. Androgens have a powerful role in promoting protein synthesis and making the body have a positive nitrogen balance.

This is particularly prominent in children, such as promoting skeletal muscle development and promoting calcium deposits in the skeleton. It thickens and grow bones, and increase basal metabolism and stimulate erythropoiesis.

Androgens can promote RNA polymerase and aminoacyltransferase, hexokinase and phosphofructokinase in glycolysis, and also promote mitochondrial cellular respiratory enzymes, thereby supplying the energy required for cell anabolism.


Synthesis and decomposition of Androgen

Normal adult men secrete 8 (4-12) mg of testosterone every day, and the individual varies greatly. 95% of the testosterone released in the blood from men comes from the testes.

Women release testosterone in the blood, mainly from the adrenal cortex.

98% of the testosterone in the blood is combined with a special α-globulin, namely corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) or testosterone binding globulin (TBG).

For transportation, a small number of testosterone and albumin bind non-specifically or exist in the blood in a free form.

The ability of the testis to synthesize testosterone is much greater than that of the adrenal cortex. Therefore, when the testis secretes insufficient androgen, it cannot be replaced or replaced by the adrenal cortex.


Synthetic androgen analogue Nandrolone (phenylpropylnortestosterone)

However, the vas deferens has no effect on the secretion of testosterone in the testicular stromal cells.

The synthetic androgen analogue Nandrolone (phenylpropylnortestosterone) can also promote the body's protein synthesis, but its virilization effect is lower than testosterone.

Artificially synthesized 17α-methyl testosterone has the highest physiological efficiency of male hormones, and can be used orally to exert effects. They are commonly used in clinical medicine.

 

Clinical disease-polycystic ovary syndrome

Diagnosis

The clinical diagnosis of PCOS is carried out in accordance with the standards established by the 2003 Rotterdam meeting, which can be diagnosed by meeting two of the following three points:

  1.  Rare ovulation or no ovulation
  2.  Those with hyperandrogenism or hyperandrogenism Clinical and biochemical characteristics (such as hairy, acne, etc.)
  3.  Ovarian polycystic changes under ultrasound examination.


 In addition, other diseases that can cause androgen hyperplasia (such as hyperprolactinemia, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, Cushing syndrome, androgen-secreting tumors, and thyroid diseases) need to be excluded.

 

Pathogenesis

The high androgen environment in the local ovaries hinders the normal growth of follicles, resulting in anovulatory or rare ovulation.

High androgen status in the circulation can cause clinical symptoms such as hairiness, obesity, acne and hair loss.

Hyperandrogenism is an important cause of PCOS ovarian pathological damage.


The main mechanisms for the formation of PCOS hyperandrogenism may include:

(1) Abnormal function of the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis The frequency and amplitude of LH secretion by the pituitary gland increases, and high LH promotes the synthesis and secretion of androgens of follicular membrane cells.

(2) Hyperadrenal function: 20% to 65% of PCOS patients are accompanied by adrenal hyperandrogenism.

PCOS patients with increased 5α-reductase activity, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 activity disorder leads to increased adrenal steroid production.

It then produces a large amount of androgens to participate in PCOS Occurred.

(3) Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia

 

What are the Treatment Principles of Poly Cystic Ovarian Syndrome, PCOS?

Nowadays, the treatment of PCOS in clinic is mostly based on a certain clinical symptom, and the focus of treatment for PCOS patients with fertility requirements is different.

For PCOS (Poly Cystic Ovarian Syndrome) patients without fertility requirements, long-term management and prevention of complications should be strengthened.

Poly Cystic Ovarian Syndrome Infographic Chart

For PCOS patients with fertility requirements, a comprehensive evaluation should be performed before assisting pregnancy.


PCOS Treatment Methods

The treatment methods include lifestyle adjustment, oral contraceptives, and insulin sensitization agents, ovulation induction treatment, surgical treatment and assisted reproductive technology, etc., should be based on the characteristics of patients to choose individual programs to achieve better results of assisted pregnancy.



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